Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Commitments and Contingencies

Commitments and Contingencies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Commitments and Contingencies

(18)  Commitments and Contingencies


In connection with agreements for the sale of assets by the Company or its subsidiaries, the Company may retain liabilities that relate to events occurring prior to its sale, such as tax, environmental, litigation and employment matters. The Company generally indemnifies the purchaser in the event that a third party asserts a claim against the purchaser that relates to a liability retained by the Company. These types of indemnification obligations may extend for a number of years. The Company is unable to estimate the maximum potential liability for these types of indemnification obligations as the sale agreements may not specify a maximum amount and the amounts are dependent upon the outcome of future contingent events, the nature and likelihood of which cannot be determined at this time. Historically, the Company has not made any significant indemnification payments under such agreements and no amount has been accrued in the accompanying consolidated financial statements with respect to these indemnification guarantees.

Employment Contracts

Long-term employment contacts provide for, among other items, annual compensation for certain Braves players (current and former) and other employees. Amounts due under such contracts as of December 31, 2022 aggregated $868 million, which is payable as follows: $184 million in 2023, $132 million in 2024, $115 million in 2025, $114 million in 2026, $90 million in 2027 and $233 million thereafter. Additionally, these contracts may include incentive compensation (although certain incentive compensation awards cannot be earned by more than one player per season).  

Programming, music royalties and other contractual arrangements

Sirius XM Holdings has entered into various programming agreements under which Sirius XM Holdings’ obligations include fixed payments, advertising commitments and revenue sharing arrangements. In addition, Sirius XM Holdings has entered into certain music royalty arrangements that include fixed payments. Amounts due under programming and music royalty agreements are payable as follows: $738 million in 2023, $525 million in 2024, $274 million in 2025, $163 million in 2026 and $62 million in 2027. Future revenue sharing costs are dependent upon many factors and are difficult to estimate; therefore, they are not included in the amounts above. In addition, Sirius XM Holdings has entered into agreements related to certain satellite and transmission costs, sales and marketing costs and in-orbit performance payments to the manufacturer of its satellites. Amounts due under these agreements are payable as follows: $354 million in 2023, $312 million in 2024, $194 million in 2025, $80 million in 2026 and $10 million in 2027.

SXM-7 Satellite

During the year ended December 31, 2021, Sirius XM Holdings recorded an impairment charge of $220 million to impairment, restructuring and acquisition costs, net of recoveries in the consolidated statement of operations related to the total loss of the SXM-7 satellite.  Sirius XM Holdings procured insurance for SXM-7 to cover the risks associated with the satellite’s launch and first year of in-orbit operation. The aggregate coverage under the insurance policies with respect to SXM-7 was $225 million. During the year ended December 31, 2021 Sirius XM Holdings collected insurance recoveries of $225 million. Of this amount, $220 million was recorded as a reduction to impairment, restructuring and acquisition costs in the consolidated statements of operations. The remaining $5 million was recorded in other, net in the consolidated statements of operations. SXM-7 remains in-orbit at its assigned orbital location, but is not being used to provide satellite radio service.

The SXM-8 satellite was successfully launched into a geostationary orbit on June 6, 2021 and was placed into service on September 8, 2021 following the completion of in-orbit testing. The SXM-8 satellite replaced the XM-3 satellite.

During the year ended December 31, 2022, the XM-5 satellite replaced the XM-4 satellite. As of December 31, 2022, the XM-3 and XM-4 satellites remain available as in-orbit spares.

Impact of COVID-19

At the outset of the coronavirus outbreak (“COVID-19”), the business operations of Formula 1, Braves Holdings and Live Nation initially were largely, if not completely, suspended. In 2020, the regular baseball season was comprised of 60 games and Formula 1 had 17 Events. The 2021 regular baseball season was comprised of 161 games. Formula 1 originally scheduled 23 Events in 2021, and after a number of Events were cancelled and/or replaced, a record 22 Events took place. Braves Holdings and Formula 1 had limitations on the number of fans in attendance at certain games and Events in 2021, thereby reducing revenue associated with fan attendance. Starting in the third quarter of 2021, Live Nation saw a meaningful restart of its operations, with growth in ticket sales, new sponsor partners and the resumption of shows, primarily in the U.S. and U.K. In 2022, the Braves played a full 162 game schedule and Formula 1 held 22 Events. Although Formula 1, Braves Holdings and Live Nation saw a more complete return to normal business operations, schedules and events in 2022, it is unclear whether and to what extent COVID-19 concerns, or a future pandemic or epidemic, will impact the use of and/or demand for the entertainment, events and services provided by these businesses and demand for sponsorship and advertising assets. If these businesses face cancelled events, closed venues and reduced attendance in the future, the impact may substantially decrease our revenue. Due to the revenue reductions caused by COVID-19 in 2020 and 2021, these businesses have looked to reduce expenses, but should such impacts resume, the businesses may not be able to reduce expenses to the same degree as any decline in revenue, which may adversely affect our results of operations and cash flow.


The Company has contingent liabilities related to legal and tax proceedings and other matters arising in the ordinary course of business. We record a liability when we believe that it is both probable that a liability will be incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. We evaluate developments in legal matters that could affect the amount of the liability accrual and make adjustments as appropriate. Significant judgment is required to determine both probability and the estimated amount of a loss or potential loss. We may be unable to reasonably estimate the reasonably possible loss or range of loss for a particular legal contingency for various reasons, including, among others, because: (i) the damages sought are indeterminate; (ii) the proceedings are in the relative early stages; (iii) there is uncertainty as to the outcome of pending proceedings (including motions and appeals); (iv) there is uncertainty as to the likelihood of settlement and the outcome of any negotiations with respect thereto; (v) there remain significant factual issues to be determined or resolved; (vi) the relevant law is unsettled; or (vii) the proceedings involve novel or untested legal theories. In such instances, there may be considerable uncertainty regarding the ultimate resolution of such matters, including a possible eventual loss, if any. In the opinion of management, it is expected that amounts, if any, which may be required to satisfy such contingencies will not be material in relation to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

Pre-1972 Sound Recording Litigation. On October 2, 2014, Flo & Eddie Inc. filed a class action suit against Pandora in the federal district court for the Central District of California.  The complaint alleges a violation of California Civil Code Section 980, unfair competition, misappropriation and conversion in connection with the public performance of sound recordings recorded prior to February 15, 1972 (“pre-1972 recordings”). On December 19, 2014, Pandora filed a motion to strike the complaint pursuant to California’s Anti-Strategic Lawsuit Against Public Participation (“Anti-SLAPP”) statute, which following denial of Pandora’s motion was appealed to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. In March 2017, the Ninth Circuit requested certification to the California Supreme Court on the substantive legal questions. The California Supreme Court accepted certification. In May 2019, the California Supreme Court issued an order dismissing consideration of the certified questions on the basis that, following the enactment of the Orrin G. Hatch-Bob Goodlatte Music Modernization Act, Pub. L. No. 115-264, 132 Stat. 3676 (2018) (the “MMA”), resolution of the questions posed by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals was no longer “necessary to . . . settle an important question of law.”

The MMA grants a potential federal preemption defense to the claims asserted in the aforementioned lawsuits. In July 2019, Pandora took steps to avail itself of this preemption defense, including making the required payments under the MMA for certain of its uses of pre-1972 recordings. Based on the federal preemption contained in the MMA (along with other considerations), Pandora asked the Ninth Circuit to order the dismissal of the Flo & Eddie, Inc. v. Pandora Media, Inc. case. On October 17, 2019, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals issued a memorandum disposition concluding that the question of whether the MMA preempts Flo and Eddie’s claims challenging Pandora’s performance of pre-1972 recordings “depends on various unanswered factual questions” and remanded the case to the District Court for further proceedings.

In October 2020, the District Court denied Pandora’s renewed motion to dismiss the case under California’s anti-SLAPP statute, finding the case no longer qualified for anti-SLAPP due to intervening changes in the law, and denied Pandora’s renewed attempt to end the case.  Alternatively, the District Court ruled that the preemption defense likely did not apply to Flo & Eddie’s claims, in part because the District Court believed that the Music Modernization Act did not apply retroactively.  Pandora promptly appealed the District Court’s decision to the Ninth Circuit, and moved to stay appellate briefing pending the appeal of a related case against Sirius XM.  On January 13, 2021, the Ninth Circuit issued an order granting the stay of appellate proceedings pending the resolution of a related case against Sirius XM.

On August 23, 2021, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit issued an Opinion in a related case, Flo & Eddie Inc. v. Sirius XM Radio Inc. The related case also concerned a class action suit brought by Flo & Eddie Inc. regarding the public performance of pre-1972 recordings under California law.  Relying on California’s copyright statute, Flo & Eddie argued that California law gave it the “exclusive ownership” of its pre-1972 songs, including the right of public performance. The Ninth Circuit reversed the District Court’s grant of partial summary judgment to Flo & Eddie Inc.  The Ninth Circuit held that the District Court in this related case erred in concluding that “exclusive ownership” under California’s copyright statute included the right of public performance. The Ninth Circuit remanded the case for entry of judgment consistent with the terms of the parties’ contingent settlement agreement, and on October 6, 2021, the parties to the related case stipulated to its dismissal with prejudice. The Flo & Eddie Inc. v. Sirius XM Radio Inc. decision is precedential in the Ninth Circuit, and therefore we believe substantially narrows the claims that Flo & Eddie may continue to assert against Pandora.

Following issuance of the Flo & Eddie Inc. v. Sirius XM Radio Inc. opinion, on September 3, 2021, the Ninth Circuit lifted the stay of appellate proceedings in Flo & Eddie, Inc. v. Pandora Media, LLC.  Pandora promptly filed an appeal of the District Court’s order denying the renewed motion to dismiss the case under California’s anti-SLAAP statute.

On June 2, 2022, the Ninth Circuit upheld the District Court’s order denying dismissal of the case under California’s anti-SLAPP statute, finding that Pandora had failed to demonstrate that Flo & Eddie’s claims arise from Pandora’s protected conduct.  As part of the decision, the Ninth Circuit noted that Pandora had forcefully argued that the Court’s decision in Flo & Eddie Inc. v. Sirius XM Radio Inc., and other decisions under New York, Florida and Georgia law, foreclosed Flo & Eddie’s claims as a matter of law.  Because the case has been pending for over seven years, the Ninth Circuit remanded the case to the District Court and directed “the district court to consider expedited motions practice on the legal validity of Flo & Eddie’s claims in light of the intervening precedent.”

On September 29, 2022, Flo & Eddie filed an Amended Complaint, and on October 13, 2022, Pandora filed an Answer to the Amended Complaint.  In accordance with the directive of the Ninth Circuit, the parties have agreed to a schedule for a Motion for Summary Judgment.  In November 2022, Pandora filed a Motion for Summary Judgment and briefing on this Motion is expected to be completed in February 2023.

Sirius XM Holdings believes it has substantial defenses to the claims asserted in these actions, and it intends to defend these actions vigorously.